May 25, 2022

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Big Bang: The other three theories that challenge the origin of the universe

Big Bang: The other three theories that challenge the origin of the universe

The Big Bang is the most popular theory that explains how the universe began.. However, some cosmologists are not very convinced and have drawn attention to some points that fail to explain this hypothesis. Others put alternative proposals on the table, which, according to them, will be better explained What was the origin of everything we know. In a recently released video BBC, The Big Bang compiled some unresolved questionsAs well as the competition of the most accepted principles to date.

According to a well-known theory, the Big Bang It all started 13.8 billion years ago, When the universe was smaller than the size of an atom and infinitely denser and warmer. Then, in a fraction of a second, that tiny dot expanded billions of times, as it is now called Cosmic Inflation.

According to the Big Bang, the universe was created 13.8 billion years ago (BBC Mundo)
According to the Big Bang, the universe was created 13.8 billion years ago (BBC Mundo)

In that sense, as the universe expands and cools, The particles became material and antimatter, The two elements, according to physics, must have destroyed each other. However, for some unknown reason, more material survived than its opposite. Now, from the eruption to that moment, Only a second passed Within those billion years.

After the explosion, neutrons and protons emerged, which, when combined, formed nuclei of helium and hydrogen. For the first 400,000 years, the universe was the largest plasma of hot particles., And as it cooled, the radiation and particles were distributed over vast areas of space, and then when they were grouped together, they formed stars, galaxies, and all the objects that make up the universe. From that moment on, the universe did not stop expanding. In this way and backwards, 13.8 billion years ago was the starting point of what we know today.

The Big Bang Theory proposes that the universe is expanding (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)
The Big Bang Theory proposes that the universe is expanding (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)

Other evidence Cosmic microwave background radiationIt was first observed in 1965. This type of radiation penetrates the universe uniformly, and it is the remnant of the first moments when the universe began to emit light and radiation.

Cosmic microwave background radiation and both cosmic inflation These are just two of the many problems facing the Big Bang theory.. In the first case, it has not yet been objectively verified, or the mechanism that triggered this rapid expansion is not understood. Second, scientists still do not understand how it spreads uniformly throughout the universe.

Three Principles Challenging the Big Bang

These are the two barriers facing the Big Bang, not counting the most important question: How did it come from nothing? From this unknown state, alternatives to theory arose, which were promoted by some of the world’s most eminent cosmologists.

This theory, called the Big Bounce, states that we know the universe One more thing in the set of others Expands first and then contracts in a cycle every billion billion years.

The Big Bounce considers the Big Bang to be a transition between contraction and explosion (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)
The Big Bounce considers the Big Bang to be a transition between contraction and explosion (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)

The Big Bounce does not deny the existence of the Big Bank, but does not take it as the beginning of it all. A transition state between an abstract and an expansion. In this way, the authors assume that distant parts of the universe would have the opportunity to communicate, which would equalize the amount of radiation in the microwave background, which Big Bang could not explain. Moreover, this hypothesis solves the problem of nothingness because, according to it, There was always time.

Another opponent of the Big Bang is the conformational cyclic cosmology theory. Roger Benrose. As before, it proposes a universe that has always existed, but with a difference There is only standard expansion. In that situation, the Big Bang is not the beginning, but a phase of eternal development.

The balanced rotation suggests that the cosmological universe has always existed and is constantly expanding (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)
The balanced rotation suggests that the cosmological universe has always existed and is constantly expanding (Credit: Video Capture / BBC Mundo)

The theory proposes that a time will come The matter of the universe will be absorbed by ultramasive black holes, Which then decomposes, resulting in the universe being primarily dominated by light particles. In this context, Benrose points out that the conditions for the recurrence of the Big Bang would be appropriate A new universe was born.

Proposes the existence of diversity, I.e., many universes appear and disappear, all of which are in the middle of a gap in constant radiation. The idea is that in the middle of that space, inflation bubbles form Allowed the formation of stars and galaxies.

These three are some theories that answer the question of the origin of the universe and all matter. On the other hand, there are more serious proposals that they suggest The universe is a hologramOr even Computer-generated simulation.